Archive for the ‘low-income’ Category

Education Issues for the Summer Solstice

Friday, June 22nd, 2018
Author of original GEEA

Author of original GEEA

On the longest day of the year 2018, the president manages to throw another shadow on education policy in the United States.

On Thursday, June 21, 2018, President Trump announced his desire to combine the Education and Labor Departments to form the Department of Education and the Workforce.

The Office of Management and Budget said the proposal would “allow the Federal government to address the educational and skill needs of American students and workers in a coordinated way, eliminating duplication of effort.” Tucker Higgins, CNBC, 6/21/18

To teachers, this consolidation would further undermine the work of Title IX as well as loosen enforcement in the education department’s Office of Civil Rights.

As recounted in TakeCare post 10/27/17, Title IX has opened doors for girls and women from classrooms to the playing fields. But despite the 46 years of tremendous progress since enactment, challenges to equity in education still exist. So, keep your eye on Sen. Mazie Hirono (D-HI) and Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA) who recently reintroduced the Patsy T. Mink and Louise M. Slaughter Gender Equity in Education Act (GEEA) of 2018 to ensure schools and educational institutions comply with this landmark civil rights law.

At a time when the U.S. Department of Education has taken action to roll back Title IX protections for students, GEEA would help address sex discrimination and ensure compliance with Title IX in all areas of education. Mission & Action, AAUW newsletter, 6/21/18

In the meantime, the Federal Commission on School Safety, chaired by U.S. Department of Education Superintendent Betsy DeVos, is not examining the reasons for gun violence in schools, but has made its goal to repeal guidance by the Obama administration on school discipline, ratings for video games, and media coverage of school shootings. In disbelief about the proposal, Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) said, “So you’re studying gun violence but not considering the role of guns? An interesting concept.” NEA Insider, 6/10/18.

Furthermore, there continues to be re-segregation in all our public schools by location and denial of equal opportunities. Congress has spent its time this past spring arguing over tax changes that leave school districts and states in constant turmoil over funding. But, Congress has not been working on projects that would increase wages and stabilize low-income communities. The consolidation of the Education and Labor Departments is likely to cause more disruption to Title I monies which are designed to support students in low-income neighborhoods to succeed and improve their education opportunities.

In fact, the Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (SNAP), another program important for children in low-income families, is being considered for a shift from the Agriculture Department to a vaguely defined ‘mega-agency’. This shift will also cause disruption in the progress of impoverished children. Fortunately, the budget delivered to Congress by Betsy DeVos was rejected which would have slashed education funding further and used what was left for vouchers to private/parochial and charter schools.

Speaking of charter schools,, researchers find that those in urban areas serve mostly black students, and charter schools in outlying suburban areas serve a super majority of white students. Again, re-segregation by location, although the clear evidence from research shows that integrated school students tend to score higher on standardized tests – still the model for judging school success – and are more likely to go to college and move to integrated settings later in life. Alliance to Reclaim Our Schools, 6/19/18

Now, as final worry – what is going to happen to all the children sitting in detention camps waiting to be re-united with their families? In the president’s executive order on Wednesday, June 20, 2018, those children aren’t the first priority. Children that cross the border illegally or for asylum won’t be separated, but those already here are not part of the order. Neither of the two immigration laws in front of the House of Representatives as of Thursday, June 21, – the Goodlatte bill didn’t pass – will remove the trauma for these children and you can be sure no money will be set aside for future trauma treatment.

And what about the DREAMERS – will those students ever emerge from the shadows to spend a summer solstice day living in health and peace?

 

 

 

64 Years After Brown v Board of Education

Friday, May 18th, 2018
Linda Brown Thompson 1945-2018

Linda Brown Thompson 1945-2018

May 17, 2018, is the 64th year since the Supreme Court of the United States decided in Brown v Board of Education in Topeka on May 17, 1954, that separate schools based on race are inherently and fundamentally unequal in the education opportunities and resources they provide. Laws legislated since the Civil War were found unconstitutional.

After years of turmoil including the nine high school students who entered Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, the Boston desegregation by busing fights from 1974-88, and similar desegregation struggles in Los Angeles, San Jose, California, and many other cities, what is the status of integration in public schools in 2018?

There is no longer de jure segregation from explicit discriminatory law, but instead de facto segregation which refers to patterns of racial separation in major cities in the United States. What has happened?

In 2018 research finds more segregation than in 1968. Seventy-five percent of black students attend poorly funded schools; with poorly maintained facilities; and punitive discipline, leading to high rates of suspension and expulsion.

In addition, it is well-documented that black and other minority students are residentially segregated. They attend schools in high-poverty areas that are given fewer resources and less per pupil spending. The teachers are less well-trained and paid less. Fewer high level academic courses are offered. An example is Manual HS in Denver and Cherry Creek HS in the Denver area.

The massive resistance by state and district school boards in the past has changed to seemingly inoffensive offers of ‘school choice’ – U. S. Superintendent of Education Betsy DeVos’ favorite phrase. In reality that means private school vouchers, also called education savings accounts and tuition tax credits, that take money away from already underserved public schools in an effort to give students a supposed chance at academic success. Another tool is the increased number of charter schools, almost 3 million students in 2018, many in highly segregated communities. Charter schools can succeed, but often are discriminatory and do not provide the achievement advertised.

Take Care Schools has offered information about programs that help low-income students in high-poverty areas succeed, but mainly they are programs for boys. It’s time to pass on statistics about black girls – after all, Oliver Brown of Brown v Board of Education wanted better education opportunities for his daughter, Linda Brown Thompson, who died on March 25, 2018, at 75.

According to research compiled by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) black students are five times more likely to attend high-poverty schools and three times more likely to live in high-poverty neighborhoods. Besides the multitude of problems with the facilities and academics at these schools, black girl students are up to six times more likely to be disciplined by suspension or expulsion than boy or girl students of any other race or ethnicity. Furthermore, since these schools lack the necessary resources for a full range of math and science classes, black girls are underrepresented in AP STEM – only 5% are in math and science, while 78% are enrolled in basic math and science.

Although women who attend college do well in science and math courses, only ¼ of black women go on to obtain a college degree and those are more likely to need student loans and have difficulty paying them back.

This is a question for the current U. S. Superintendent of Education who, despite the numbers, is issuing decrees to make it harder to complete school without debt.

Watch the progress on overcoming poverty in Congress with the National Defense Authorization Act, which seems innocuous, but is a voucher system for military families. It is opposed by the National Military Family Association and the Military Officers Association of America. (Education Insider-NEA May 13, 2018.) We should hope the bill goes down.

On the other hand, the Alliance to Reclaim Our Schools, May 15, 2018, reminds us that inequalities exist in schools when students are tracked according to what are seen as their abilities. Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington has a curriculum called Honors for All to overcome that bias.

The Krause Center for Innovation’s program for teachers, a hands-on technology infused model for mathematics instruction, called FAME (Faculty Academy for Mathematics Excellence) has developed a revised model for grade 4 and 5 teachers who after the summer session take back the instructional model to their students – the idea is to improve math knowledge for all students, not just the gifted.

Even today with a vast number of concerns for this country’s stability, integration in public schools remains one of the most important obligations of our time. Innovation or diversified funding won’t make public school equal, although there’s always a ray of hope: Georgia State in a suburb of Atlanta has shown innovation to increase graduation of black students. However, where communities are integrated the health of black students is better, the poverty rate is lower, and incarceration declines. Moreover, living in diverse neighborhoods reduces the prejudice of white students and the community.

 

Black History Month

Wednesday, January 31st, 2018

img7458270 (1)At the end of the sixth month of the 2017-2018 fiscal year Congress is still spending its energy on stop gap, short term measures to fund the government which, among other needs, means the government prevents adequate investment in public education.

Who is most affected by these quick fix solutions? The disability, special education, English Language Learners, and especially programs, like Title I, for low-income students.

And now February is Black History Month which has been a time to learn about famous black Americans in history. This year in Seattle, a project called Black Lives Matter in Schools is making three demands of the school system:

  • substitute the ‘restorative justice’ discipline model for ‘zero tolerance’
  • hire more black teachers
  • develop a sufficient black history and ethnic studies program K-12

Let’s look at discipline. An example can be seen in District U46 south of Chicago. Of 6% black students in a 39,000-pupil district, 26% of those black students got out-of-school suspensions in 2016-2017. Fifty-one percent (2500 black students) received discipline referrals. That seems biased when only twenty-four percent of the Latino students, another minority group and the largest part of the district school population, received discipline referrals. Besides having professional development in cultural awareness, training about racial bias, and a goal to support all demographic groups, the district would benefit by trying a different model of disciplinary treatment, like ‘restorative justice.’

As for a goal of hiring more black teachers, studies show that even one black teacher in grades 3-5 for low-income black boys reduces the likelihood of dropping out and increases the rate of high school graduation and expectation to attend college. Right now, the percent of black teachers in the country is declining sharply.

School districts where I taught spent resources on Black History Month books about famous names for their libraries. Some even developed curriculum for each grade. But considering the current problems that seem to focus on civil rights and racial bias in the news, at least in middle and high school, a more detailed study about the history of slavery and civil rights after the Civil War to present day is the curriculum that matters.

Will this actually happen?

In the past year under Superintendent Betsy DeVos of the United States Department of Education (DOE), $19.2 million has been cut from federal education programs, including college-study programs. At the same time, $250 million of the DOE budget was given over for private school vouchers. In addition, $22 million has been eliminated for teacher training, among other programs.

Right now, Kenneth Marcus has been nominated for Assistant Secretary of the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) in the Department of Education and has met with the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Senate committee for confirmation. Although he founded the Louis D. Brandeis Center, a civil rights group, his focus was on opposing any anti-Semitism on campuses. OK, but what about other groups who are being discriminated against? In his previous role as Acting Assistant Secretary at OCR from 2002 to 2004, he helped develop regulations governing single-sex education that relied on sex stereotypes. In his Senate hearing he agreed with DeVos’ revisions of student sexual harassment protections under Title IX regulations and other civil rights laws for students – a continuing problem in the DOE.

Think about the broad Congressional support for Every Student Succeeds Act which has only reached one year since it became law and look at the numbers reported above. The issue to ensure every student succeeds is to budget adequate funds for all public education students in states and local districts. Furthermore, Congress must raise the caps on domestic funding, especially to support education, not just defense funding.

How else to deliver sustainable community schools for black or any student in need?

 

 

 

Federal Budget to Cut After-School and Summer Programs?

Tuesday, August 29th, 2017
California elementary school with after-school program

California elementary school with after-school program

Keep in mind the $9 billion education cuts proposed by the president and Superintendent of the U.S. Department of Education, Betsy DeVos, and the Department of Agriculture cuts to school meal funds proposed by Sonny Perdue. These cuts are sitting on the table for all to see while Congress comes up with an actual budget funding bill.

The Committee on Education, Health and Human Services, and Labor, chaired by Republican Virginia Foxx-North Carolina, has designed a bill which passed by committee vote and passed the Appropriations Committee vote on July 12, 2017. It is unlikely to pass a full floor vote, nor in the Senate.

Still the action rattles the education community because some unfortunate version will pass. It cuts $2.4 billion from several sections of Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).

From Title II-A it eliminates funds to reduce class size, provide professional development, recruit and retain teachers, and provide mentoring services to school districts across the country.

It takes money from Title I services to needy schools.

Most objectionable to districts that try to improve achievement levels and graduation rates are funds being slashed from the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21stCCLC) – part of ESSA – that provide for after-school services, summer programs, including meals, to low-income neighborhood schools.

The president and the Budget Director, Mick Mulvaney, insist that the programs are not boosting student achievement. Likewise, the bill claims to eliminate duplicative or ineffective programs and reduce funds to others. Evidence for such statements is rare or non-existent, like voter fraud.

Looking at current research, The Hechinger Report, Covering Innovation and Inequality in Education, focuses on 21st Century Community Learning Center sites in Mississippi’s poor neighborhoods. The document blames the cuts from the Department of Agriculture (USDA) that provide meals as well as the reduction of service funds for 21st CCLC that will lead to cognitive delays from malnutrition as well as no homework help, tutoring, or recreation supervision which means, of course, there will be no growth.

The Texas Education Agency’s evaluation of fifteen 21st Century Community Learning Center sites found higher test scores from grades 9-12 program participants and improved progression through grades. In middle schools, they found fewer disciplinary problems, better attendance and behavior, higher promotion and graduation rates. For details see “Texas study” .pdf in The Hechinger Report, found in the paragraph under subtitle “Related: How does Mississippi really compare…”.

The California Department of Education’s “Independent State-wide Evaluation of After-School Programs” shows reduced juvenile crime rate, higher graduation rates, and improved test scores. To see the details click here and to choose ACES 12/2012 from a list of studies click here.

Take Care Schools has data for California schools. Four hundred programs across the state serve 100,000 California students at 21stCCLC sites and other after-school programs agreed to by voters in an initiative promoted by former Governor Arnold Schwarznegger. California spends 4 times as much from state funds than it receives from the federal government. The problem is that, like in many states, the monies are divided: elementary and middle school programs are funded by state money. Any high school monies for after-school and summer programs come from the federal budget.

Click here for more analysis of California, Texas, and other state after-school programs.

If those funds disappear, anyone can realize that the progress low-income neighborhood schools are focusing on – student achievement, promotion, graduation rates – will be affected.

Do we want 18-year-olds standing on street corners, wandering from low-pay job to job, putting strain on their family or worse as we’ve all seen. Only because the president and his cohorts seem to think that taking all the $$ away, rather than fixing and improving the services, is the solution. Is that so?

 

 

 

Community Schools? 

Thursday, May 11th, 2017
small island school perfect for community school

small island school perfect for community school

Let’s concentrate on the news about the president’s proposed FY 2018 budget and, not yet signed into law, AHCA which passed in the House of Representatives and now goes to the Senate.

What jumps out to an educator is the decline in $9 billion in funds allocated to the U. S. Department of Education with no outcry from the administration’s cabinet member, Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. Next, the decline in funds in the AHCA plan for Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) which immediately, if it becomes law, affects the health and readiness to succeed for students from pre-K to 12th grade.

If $1 billion of the budget is diverted from existing programs to voucher-type programs, then after-school programs, class size, professional development, Pell grants are likely to go. (Note, however, Ms. DeVos has said year-round Pell Grant funding will be restored, but she has decided to roll back loan protections for borrowers. New York Times, “Graduates Meet DeVos with their Backs Turned” by Erica L. Green, May 11, 2017) If Medicaid becomes block grants with not enough money for a state to provide for all residents, the vulnerable are the victims and so, money will be diverted from education funds to provide for insurance for those with pre-existing condition, for children, for the elderly – children helped to stay alive, but no school. Is that not juggling until the balls drop? See NEA Education Insider, May 7, 2017.

Because of apprehension about possible disasters to public school education, establishment of well-defined and implemented “community schools” may help to overcome fears. In fact, states, districts, and even local communities have found ways to consolidate resources and people to ameliorate education problems, especially in low-income neighborhoods. In fact, Randi Weingarten, AFT president, escorted Betsy DeVos to see a community school in Dayton, Ohio.

However, many school districts have health centers or preschools or after-school programs or attendance clerks, nurses, and counselors or a public library attached to a school, but are not organized to be proficient and productive.

What are the ‘best practices’ model for community schools?

Two national organizations can help a school or district or region establish a community school: the Coalition for Community Schools, housed at the Institute for Educational Leadership, and The Children’s Aid Society of the National Center for Community Schools. Both organizations are standards-driven and use evidence-based strategies to promote equity and educational excellence, as noted on the websites.

The models are set to devise and implement four components to ensure a good community school. Focusing on Academics, think tutoring, homework centers, arts and music programs, academic challenge games, student government. For Health, think an open gym, dental and mental health centers, intramural sport programs, and an on-site clinic. For Community Resources, think advisory councils, services located at or near the school, community partners who seek funding. For Family, think ESL or GED or literacy classes, fitness, homework help for parents in school, adult sports. The options are endless to make the parents, community, and students think of the school as the resource for all.

The models instituted in Erie, Pennsylvania; New York City; Oxnard, California; and Flint, Michigan call for a coordinator to oversee and foster relentless support for the school community. The payoff is a place where education is valued and supported.

The hard part is the persistent under-funding, especially in low-income regions, and to secure state level fiscal equity and funding adequacy. Reading about New York City’s initiative, first call is to make efficient leverage of current and new public funding; second, use the district’s financial department knowledge to search for foundation grant funding; third, as many Harlem Children’s Zone community schools do, look to the private sector to broker partners and funding.

The end outcome is to achieve sustainability for community schools, and that is why the FY 2018 budget and AHCA are unnerving.